Much has been written about Flodden and how it was a catastrophic defeat for the Scots. There was much more to the campaign of August and September 1513 than one battle, disastrous for the Scots but a glorious victory for the English.Read More
While the focus of much study represented in this publication has concentrated upon the activities of the English and Scottish armies in England between the 22nd August and 9th September 1513, very little is known about how the extensive Scottish force, its artillery train and camp followers travelled through the Scottish Borders, what route it took and where it camped.Read More
A strand of research, looking at buildings associated with the routes taken by the army of James IV on its way to and from the Battle of Flodden, came to focus largely on ecclesiastical buildings, largely because it was found that the majority of genuinely medieval buildings in the region are churches and monasteries, and it is inconceivable that such establishments, in particular monastic houses, would not have played a significant role at the time of the battle, and especially in its aftermath, when many wounded were trying to make their way home.Read More
On 24th July, 1513, in anticipation of what became the Battle of Flodden, James IV of Scotland sent out four messengers to different parts of his realm with instructions to muster at Ellem in Berwickshire, which Caldwell (this publication) argues should be understood as the final muster point for the Scottish army following a series of local and regional muster points.Read More
The castle of Wark on Tweed, the defensive Work (hence, Wark) of Carham, lies at the west end of the modern village of Wark on the south side of the River Tweed, which at this point forms the border between England and Scotland, where it occupies part of an elongated glacial mound or ‘kaim’, a mini-escarpment rising abruptly from the south and extending east and west for some 300 metres each side of the motte.Read More
Norham was one of two border castles, with Wark-on-Tweed, which were besieged during the early stages of the Scottish Invasion in 1513. Starting on 21st or 22nd August of 1513, James IV crossed the border in force at the head of a large army.Read More
The high ground known today as Flodden Hill forms the eastern end of a ridge sometimes also known as Flodden Edge. The ridge extends westward from Flodden Hill itself, taking in King’s Chair Hill, and East and West Flodden Hills. This area of high ground and the slopes to the north and south are dotted with archaeological sites – some still visible as earthworks on the ground, others now identifiable only as crop-marks in aerial photographs or known because they were recorded by antiquarians.Read More
They dug on Flodden Hill again this year,
Amid the bluebells and the lofty fir,
Seeking the Shades of those who followed James,
And sought to tweak the tail of English Might.
Does nothing yet remain to show where once those doughty Scots sat bold,
Secure they thought atop this northern hill.
This document (reference: E36/1 page 122) is found in King Henry VIII’s State Papers amongst the Exchequer documents. It outlines what is needed to feed an army of 1000 for 6 weeks. The document is contemporary with Flodden and so it gives us an idea of what the men might have been fed and the financial cost for providing it. It was drawn up for the campaign in France which was taking place at the same time but the diet of the men going to Flodden would have been very similar.Read More
On 9th September 1513, Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, on Henry VIII’s behalf, fought and won a decisive battle against the Scots at Flodden, also known as Branxton Moor which resulted in the death of King James IV of Scotland. Who was this man, then aged 70 and relatively old, even by today’s standards, and what was his background?Read More
The background to the period of history in which this document was written is outlined in the earlier article ‘An Introduction to the Documents’. Monetary values in the document (shown in brackets) have been calculated to comparative values in 2005, using the National Archives currency converter.1Read More
The Alnwick Muster Roll1 is one of the most important contemporary documents in the North East of England linked to the Battle of Flodden.
It is highly likely that the bowmen named on the Alnwick Muster Roll are the very men who were present not six months earlier with Sir William Percy on the field of battle at Flodden, and who survived to fight again.Read More